Manipulation and/or Processing of Information
In this section you should be able to:
- Describe the different modes of operation:
- Describe the characteristics of processing data in the form of text, pictures, numbers and sound.
General Overview - Processing Information**
- The way information is processed, used and operated is decided at the design stage of a system.
- There are number of ways in which data can be processed (modes of operation) by an information system.
Common modes of operation include:
- All the data is collected together
- The data is then processed as one operation
- Traditionally processed overnight when computer system is not used for daily activities, e.g.
- Processing wages calculations
- Processing electricity meter readings to produce bills sent to customers
- Computer system deals with each set of data as it is submitted
- Each transaction is completed before the next is begun, e.g.
- Booking a theatre ticket
- Placing an order from a mail order company
- Computer system responds to user requests immediately
- Often creates a “dialogue” with system, e.g.
- Booking airline tickets
- Requesting information about a bank account via a cash-dispensing machine (ATM)
- Computer system that can react fast enough to influence behaviour in the outside world, e.g.
- Air-traffic control systems (necessary feature)
- On-line reservation systems (desirable feature)
- Occurs when computer devices are not under the immediate control of the main computer, e.g.
- Data entry to disk during backing up procedure
- Transactions interact directly with the main computer, e.g.
- Searching an on-line database
British Computer Society: The BCS Glossary of ICT and Computing Terms.
11th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education, 2005.
- Text, pictures, numbers and sound - presentation (from on Payne-Gallway Publications and ICT eLearning @ONE24)
- Data has to be converted into digital data to be processed and stored in a computer.
- Different data is processed in different ways:
- Numbers use binary
- Text converted to binary form using ASCII
- Sound uses sampling methods to convert analogue data to digital
- Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)
- Images are stored as:
- Bit-map images (.bmp)
- Vector images
Now do the questions at the end of Chapters 24 and 25 of the text book