Data, Information, and Knowledge


In this section you should be able to:

The Data, Information, & Knowledge Relationship


data information & knowledge cycle


Click each arrow for more details



Introduction to Computer Systems:

Exercise 1:

Data Entry:

Data can captured (entered) directly into a computer system or entered indirectly, usually via a keyboard, for example:


Direct data capture Indirect data entry
Bar code reader, e.g. scanning goods bought at a supermarket Typing pupil's homework marks into a spreadsheet
Optical character reader, e.g. school registers Typing customers' details into a database
MICR - magnetic ink character recognition - used to automatically read a cheque's sort code and account number Entering hours worked by employees into a wages system
Data logging, e.g. automatic weather station collecting temperature data Reading temperature from a thermometer and typing value into a spreadsheet

 Data Capture Methods

Garbage In, Garbage Out (GIGO)

Mistakes in entering data will result in problems with the information produced, e.g.

garbage in, garbage out

Problem Data - Garbage in

Result - Garbage out
Numbers transposed (swapped around) on an order form, e.g. 75 instead of 57 Correct product sent, but what customer wanted
Number mis-read when data entered, e.g. gas meter reading entered as 5 instead of 8 Smaller bill sent to customer, gas company not paid correctly for gas used
Number entered twice. e.g. 44 items bought instead of 4 Customer overcharged for goods
Extra numbers added, e.g. 100 hours worked instead of 10 Employee overpaid for hours worked
Correct data entered for wrong item, e.g. Customer A's details entered with address of Customer B Customer A does not recieve goods or invoices. Customer B recieve wrong goods and invoices.
Incorrect data selected, e.g. student ticks the wrong box or the wrong item chosen from a drop down menu Student registered for subjects they do not want to study


Validation and Verification:

There are two main methods that are used to ensure, where possible, that the data entered into an computer information system is correct.





Do you know how each method can be used?


Encoding Data:

Data (text and numbers) are stored in a computer system in binary form, which is often represented as 0s and 1s, e.g.



Coding data before it is entered into a computer system has many advantages:

Examples include:


Information or data Code
Gender M = male, F= female
Date 01/01/2006 = 1st January 2006
Post code BD1 = Bradford, city centre area
Branches of high street banks Sort code, e.g. 60-18-46
Airport LHR = London Heathrow



Exercise 2:


Extra resources:

Now do the questions at the end of Chapter 8 of the text book

Knowedge Data Information